Construction and Working Principle of Vertical Boiler

Vertical Boiler

Generally a vertical fire tube boiler is a vertical type boiler. In this boiler heating surface is composed of multiple small fire tubes and it arranged vertically. In this post we will learn Construction and Working Principle of Vertical Boiler.

Vertical Boiler
Vertical Boiler

Construction of Vertical Boiler:

The interior parts of this boiler has been separated by four way and those are,

1. Furnace and Combustion Chamber.
2. Water Chamber.
3. Steam Chamber.
4. Chimney.

Related: Construction and Working Principle of Cornish Boiler

Furnace and Combustion Chamber:

Furnace is an important part for any kind of boiler. It also called the heating surface for a boiler. Fuel use to burn inside the boiler furnace and heat is generated. Then heat transfer to the water inside the boiler and became steam. A brick bridge is use inside the combustion chamber. By using this brick bridge less fuel is needed and efficiency of the boiler is increased.

A corrugated shape will be found with the furnace plate. This corrugated plate is made with some metal alloy and its strength is very high. One of the main reasons is that it is the main heating section for this boiler. This plate thickness can be 1.54cm. It is one of the thin plates inside the boiler. For this reason this plate can be heated so first and heat transfer to the water is relatively high.

Water Chamber:

This chamber contains water. After water treatment procedure, feed water stored in the water chamber. This feed water flow through the inside or outside of the tube and get heated by the furnace generated flue gases. After, this feed water become steam.

Steam Chamber:

Generated steam inside the boiler is stored in this steam chamber when it is in primary stage. From this steam chamber, steam transfer to the super heater. Then superheated steam transfer to the prime mover. You can say saturated steam is stored in this steam chamber.

Related: Construction and Working Principle of Lancashire Boiler


When you are burning fuel inside the furnace then smoke and gases will generate. By using the chimney this smoker and hot gases releases to the atmosphere. Boiler chimney helps to releases all fly ash, burn flue gases and smokes to the open air. Boiler chimney need to be long height that by using this all smoke and gases can releases at maximum height. For this height smoke and gases has less amount of negative in environment.

To get a better efficiency of a boiler, draft is needed at the furnace. Natural draft is created by the chimney and it helps to burn fuel in furnace. If the height of the chimney is high then natural draft power will high. But making a long height chimney is much expensive. For this reason long height chimney is not available at present time. In modern boiler induced draft fan (I.D Fan) is use to release smoke by small chimney.

Working of Vertical Boiler:

When fuel is placed in the furnace and burn then hot flue gas is generated. Then this hot flue gases passes through the fire tube and heat surrounding water. When water becomes heated then it converted in saturated steam. You can call this saturated steam as a primary steam. This saturated steam is stored at the steam chamber. From the steam chamber is transfer to the boiler super heater. This super heating process makes saturated steam to working steam. After that super heated steam is transfer to the prime mover. All hot burn flue gases, smoke and ash are release out from the boiler by a chimney. Boiler chimney creates a natural draft to increase boiler efficiency.

Related: Construction and Working Principle of Locomotive Boiler

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