Construction and Working Principle of Vertical Boiler

Generally, a vertical fire tube boiler is a vertical type boiler. In this boiler heating surface is composed of multiple small fire tubes and is arranged vertically. In this post, we will learn the Construction and Working Principle of Vertical Boiler.

Vertical Boiler
Vertical Boiler

Construction of Vertical Boiler:

The interior parts of this boiler have been separated by four-way and those are,

1. Furnace and Combustion Chamber.
2. Water Chamber.
3. Steam Chamber.
4. Chimney.

Related: Construction and Working Principle of Cornish Boiler

Furnace and Combustion Chamber:

The furnace is an important part of any kind of boiler. It also called the heating surface for a boiler. Fuel used to burn inside the boiler furnace and heat is generated. Then heat transfer to the water inside the boiler and became steam. A brick bridge is used inside the combustion chamber. By using this brick bridge less fuel is needed and the efficiency of the boiler is increased.

A corrugated shape will be found with the furnace plate. This corrugated plate is made with some metal alloy and its strength is very high. One of the main reasons is that it is the main heating section for this boiler. This plate thickness can be 1.54cm. It is one of the thin plates inside the boiler. For this reason, this plate can be heated so first and heat transfer to the water is relatively high.

Water Chamber:

This chamber contains water. After the water treatment procedure, feed water stored in the water chamber. This feed water flows through the inside or outside of the tube and gets heated by the furnace generated flue gases. After, this feed water becomes steam.

Steam Chamber:

Generated steam inside the boiler is stored in this steam chamber when it is in the primary stage. From this steam chamber, steam transfer to the superheater. Then superheated steam transfer to the prime mover. You can say saturated steam is stored in this steam chamber.

Related: Construction and Working Principle of Lancashire Boiler


When you are burning fuel inside the furnace then smoke and gases will generate. By using the chimney this smoker and hot gases release to the atmosphere. Boiler chimney helps to releases all fly ash, burn flue gases and smokes to the open air. Boiler chimney needs to be the long height that by using this all smoke and gases can release at maximum height. For this height smoke and gases has less amount of negative in the environment.

To get better efficiency of a boiler, the draft is needed at the furnace. Natural draft is created by the chimney and it helps to burn fuel in the furnace. If the height of the chimney is high then natural draft power will high. But making a long height chimney is much expensive. For this reason, long height chimney is not available at present time. In modern boiler induced draft fan (I.D Fan) is used to release smoke by a small chimney.

Working of Vertical Boiler:

When fuel is placed in the furnace and burns then hot flue gas is generated. Then these hot flue gases pass through the fire tube and heat surrounding water. When water becomes heated then it converted in saturated steam. You can call this saturated steam as primary steam. This saturated steam is stored at the steam chamber. From the steam, the chamber is transferred to the boiler superheater. This superheating process makes saturated steam to working steam. After that superheated steam is transfer to the prime mover. All hot burn flue gases, smoke, and ash are release out from the boiler by a chimney. Boiler chimney creates a natural draft to increase boiler efficiency.

Related: Construction and Working Principle of Locomotive Boiler

Now if you find this post useful then please share with your friends. If we missed any part to explain then please let us know at the comment section. Thanks!

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